Naess on Spinoza

“All particular things are expressions of God; through all of them God acts.  There is no hierarchy.  There is no purpose, no final causes such that one can say that the “lower” exist for the sake of the “higher”.  There is an ontological democracy or equalitarianism which, incidentally, greatly offended his contemporaries, but of which ecology makes us more tolerante today… no great philosopher has so much to offer in the way of clarification and articulation of basic ecological attitudes as Baruch Spinoza.”

Arne Naess speaking about Spinoza.


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